American Urological Association - Chemotherapy Effect
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Chemotherapy Effect

Image A

Image B

  • Cytologic features:
    • Cellular enlargement and hyperchromasia (image A) & (image B).
    • N:C ratio is preserved (which helps distinguish these cells from cancer cells and "decoy" cells).
    • Chromatin is often degenerated with a "smudgy" appearance.
    • Cytoplasm may be vacuolated.