American Urological Association - Squamous Cell Carcinoma
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Image A

Image B

  • Cytologic features:
    • Large flat polygonal cells with "hard" (dense) cytoplasm; usually stain pink on a pap smear (image A).
    • Nuclei should be round with smooth borders and finely distributed chromatin.
    • N:C ratio should be very low (small nucleus, lots of cytoplasm) – generally <1:2 (image B).
  • Increased numbers may be seen in normal urine.
    • As a contaminant from the distal urethra, vagina, or vulva.
    • In cases of squamous metaplasia, usually of the bladder trigone (seen in 40% of females and in men undergoing estrogen therapy for prostate cancer).
    • In cases of chronic irritation and inflammation.