American Urological Association - Hemorrhagic Cystitis
- Often found in patients receiving chemotherapy (e.g. cyclophosphamide, busulfan, thiotepa) and also can be seen in insecticide or aniline dye exposure, radiation, viral infections (adenovirus, types 11 and 21, polyomavirus, herpes simplex type 2), and idiopathic situations (image A).
- Congested vasculatures and extensive lamina propria hemorrhage (image B).
- Can be accompanied by sloughing of surface urothelium, ulceration or cytologic atypia depending on the cause of hemorrhagic cystitis (radiation-induced or chemotherapy-induced atypia).