- Reactive glandular metaplasia of epithelium found in 71% of bladders, most often as an incidental finding.
- When visualized, by cystoscopy appears as red raised nodular lesions, with predilection for trigone.
- Rarely, extensive intestinal metaplasia may have copious mucin extravasation that may form pseudotumorous mass lesion.
- Histology: 2 histologic types.
- Intestinal type: identical to typical cystitis glandularis but with presence of goblet cells
(image C) & (image D).
- In patients with long-standing inflammation (indwelling catheters, calculi, etc.), intestinal type cystitis glandularis may become diffuse, at which time is suggested as a possible risk for bladder adenocarcinoma, although this association is currently controversial.