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Pathology for Urologists

Emphysematous Cystitis


  • Characterized by multiple air blebs within the bladder mucosa and wall.
  • More common in females and often associated with diabetes (70%).
  • Cystoscopy may show distorted or expanded bladder with lumps covered by intact mucosa.
  • Caused by gas-forming bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Aerobacter aerogenes.
  • Histology:
    • Multiple variably sized gas-filled cavities interspersed in mucosa and muscularis propria.
    • Flattened cells with occasional foreign body type giant cells line the cavities.

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