EDUCATION > Educational Programs > E-Learning > Pathology for Urologists

Pathology for Urologists

Bladder Diverticula


Image A
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Image B
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  • Defect wherein bladder mucosa forms a pouch through the bladder muscular wall, which are mostly acquired but can also be congenital.
  • Acquired diverticula
    • Older men (>50 years) from increase intravesical pressure from outlet obstruction, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (images A).
    • Usually multifocal and commonly involves the lateral walls.
    • Muscularis propria layer is often absent (image B) & (image C).

Image C
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Image D
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  • Congenital diverticula
    • In children, associated with posterior urethral valves or neurogenic bladder.
    • May contain an attenuated muscularis propria layer.
  • Lining may undergo squamous or intestinal metaplasia due to irritation.
  • Long-standing diverticula are subject to infection, stone formation (image D) and also have an increased risk for developing carcinoma.
    • Mainly urothelial carcinoma but with a relatively higher proportion for non-urothelial carcinomas (squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma).

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