EDUCATION > Courses and Products > E-Learning > Pathology for Urologists

Pathology for Urologists

Chemotherapy Effect

Image A
(click on the image above)

Image B
(click on the image above)

  • Cytologic features:
    • Cellular enlargement and hyperchromasia (image A) & (image B).
    • N:C ratio is preserved (which helps distinguish these cells from cancer cells and "decoy" cells).
    • Chromatin is often degenerated with a "smudgy" appearance.
    • Cytoplasm may be vacuolated.

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