Characterized by multiple air blebs within the bladder mucosa and wall.
More common in females and often associated with diabetes (70%).
Cystoscopy may show distorted or expanded bladder with lumps covered by intact mucosa.
Caused by gas-forming bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Aerobacter aerogenes.
Multiple variably sized gas-filled cavities interspersed in mucosa and muscularis propria.
Flattened cells with occasional foreign body type giant cells line the cavities.