American Urological Association - Schistosomiasis
- Infection caused by a water-borne trematode Schistosoma haematobium.
- Endemic in eastern Mediterranean and sub-Saharan Africa.
- Infects humans via skin penetration of larvae within water source.
- Deposits of round to oval ova with incited chronic inflammation and granuloma formations, and fibrosis with time (image A) & (image B).
- S. haematobium has terminal spines and lacks acid-fast staining, in contrast to other Schistosoma species.
- Eggs may calcify overtime.
- May be associated with keratinizing squamous metaplasia and dysplasia.
- Risk for development of bladder squamous cell carcinoma.
- May resemble encrusted cystitis, which in contrast has irregular calcified aggregates.