Infection caused by a water-borne trematode Schistosoma haematobium.
Endemic in eastern Mediterranean and sub-Saharan Africa.
Infects humans via skin penetration of larvae within water source.
Deposits of round to oval ova with incited chronic inflammation and granuloma formations, and fibrosis with time (image A) & (image B).
S. haematobium has terminal spines and lacks acid-fast staining, in contrast to other Schistosoma species.
Eggs may calcify overtime.
May be associated with keratinizing squamous metaplasia and dysplasia.
Risk for development of bladder squamous cell carcinoma.
May resemble encrusted cystitis, which in contrast has irregular calcified aggregates.