Reactive glandular metaplasia of epithelium found in 71% of bladders, most often as an incidental finding.
When visualized, by cystoscopy appears as red raised nodular lesions, with predilection for trigone.
Rarely, extensive intestinal metaplasia may have copious mucin extravasation that may form pseudotumorous mass lesion.
Histology: 2 histologic types.
Typical type: similar to cystitis cystica but with luminal cuboidal or columnar cells surrounded by urothelial cells (image A) & (image B).
Image C (click on the image above)
Image D (click on the image above)
Intestinal type: identical to typical cystitis glandularis but with presence of goblet cells (image C) & (image D).
In patients with long-standing inflammation (indwelling catheters, calculi, etc.), intestinal type cystitis glandularis may become diffuse, at which time is suggested as a possible risk for bladder adenocarcinoma, although this association is currently controversial.